Last Updated:
How Do DDoS Attacks Work
How Do DDoS Attacks Work

How Do DDoS Attacks Work Actually?

Darknet botnets

Table of Contents

Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks are a significant concern in today's digital landscape. These attacks can disrupt websites, hinder online services, and cause substantial financial and reputational harm. Understanding how DDoS attacks work is crucial for businesses and individuals alike. This blog post delves into the intricacies of DDoS attacks, from their basic mechanics to the methods used by attackers, and explores ways to defend against them.

What is a DDoS Attack?

A Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attack is a malicious attempt to disrupt the normal traffic of a targeted server, service, or network by overwhelming it with a flood of Internet traffic. Unlike a Denial of Service (DoS) attack, which typically uses a single computer and a single Internet connection to flood a targeted resource, DDoS attacks leverage multiple compromised computer systems as sources of traffic.

These attacks are executed using networks of computers connected to the Internet. These networks consist of devices that have been infected with malware, allowing them to be controlled remotely by an attacker. These individual devices, known as bots or zombies, form what is called a botnet. When a DDoS attack is launched, the attacker uses the botnet to flood the target with traffic, overwhelming its resources and preventing legitimate users from accessing the service.

Types of DDoS Attacks

DDoS attacks can be categorized into three main types: volume-based attacks, protocol attacks, and application layer attacks. Each type targets different aspects of a network or service.

Volume-Based Attacks

Volume-based attacks, also known as volumetric attacks, aim to saturate the bandwidth of the target site or service. They employ techniques such as UDP floods, ICMP floods, and other spoofed-packet floods to overwhelm the target’s capacity. The magnitude of these attacks is measured in bits per second (bps).

Protocol Attacks

Protocol attacks focus on exploiting weaknesses in the protocol stack to consume resources on intermediate communication equipment such as servers and load balancers. Examples include SYN floods, fragmented packet attacks, and Ping of Death. These attacks are measured in packets per second (pps).

Application Layer Attacks

Application layer attacks target specific applications or services by exploiting weaknesses in the application layer (Layer 7 of the OSI model). These attacks can be particularly effective because they require fewer resources to achieve their goals. Examples include HTTP floods, slowloris attacks, and DNS query floods.

How Do Attackers Execute DDoS Attacks?

To execute a DDoS attack, attackers typically follow several steps. First, they must establish a botnet. This involves infecting a large number of devices with malware that allows remote control. The malware can be spread through various means, such as email attachments, malicious websites, or software vulnerabilities.

Once the botnet is established, the attacker will choose a target. The target could be a website, an online service, or a network infrastructure. The attacker will then issue a command to the botnet to begin the attack, directing the compromised devices to send a flood of traffic to the target.

The goal of the attack is to overwhelm the target's resources, making it impossible for legitimate users to access the service. This can result in significant downtime, loss of revenue, and damage to the target's reputation.

Common Tools and Techniques

Several tools and techniques are commonly used to conduct DDoS attacks. These tools are often readily available on the dark web and can be used by attackers with varying levels of technical expertise.


As mentioned earlier, botnets are networks of compromised devices controlled by an attacker. Botnets can be rented or purchased on the dark web, making it easier for attackers to launch large-scale DDoS attacks.

Amplification Attacks

Amplification attacks involve sending a small query to a server that will elicit a much larger response. The attacker spoofs the source IP address to be that of the target, causing the server to flood the target with large responses. Common amplification attacks include DNS amplification and NTP amplification.

Reflective Attacks

Reflective attacks involve sending requests to servers with the source IP address spoofed to be the target's IP. The server responds to these requests, flooding the target with traffic. This technique is often used in conjunction with amplification to increase the attack's effectiveness.

The Impact of DDoS Attacks

The impact of a DDoS attack can be severe, affecting both the target and its users. The immediate effect is the unavailability of the targeted service, leading to frustration and potential loss of customers. For businesses, this can translate to lost revenue and damage to their reputation.

In addition to the direct financial costs, there are also indirect costs to consider. These include the expenses associated with mitigating the attack, such as hiring security experts, investing in DDoS protection services, and potentially upgrading infrastructure to handle future attacks.

DDoS attacks can also have broader implications for the Internet as a whole. They can cause widespread disruption, affecting not just the targeted service but also other services that rely on the same infrastructure.

How to Defend Against DDoS Attacks

Defending against DDoS attacks requires a multi-layered approach. There is no single solution that can completely prevent these attacks, but a combination of strategies can significantly reduce their impact.

Network Security Measures

Implementing robust network security measures is the first line of defense. This includes using firewalls, intrusion detection and prevention systems, and load balancers to filter and manage traffic. These tools can help identify and block malicious traffic before it reaches the target.

DDoS Protection Services

Many companies offer DDoS protection services that can help mitigate attacks. These services often use a combination of techniques, such as traffic analysis, rate limiting, and content delivery networks (CDNs), to absorb and deflect attack traffic.

Regular Security Audits

Conducting regular security audits can help identify vulnerabilities in your network and applications. By addressing these vulnerabilities, you can reduce the risk of a successful DDoS attack.

Incident Response Planning

Having a well-defined incident response plan is crucial for minimizing the impact of a DDoS attack. This plan should include steps for detecting an attack, mitigating its effects, and recovering from the disruption.

The Role of ISPs and Government Agencies

Internet Service Providers (ISPs) and government agencies also play a crucial role in defending against DDoS attacks. ISPs can implement measures to detect and block attack traffic before it reaches its target. They can also collaborate with other ISPs to share information and coordinate responses to large-scale attacks.

Government agencies can help by enforcing laws against cybercrime and providing resources and support to organizations facing DDoS attacks. In some cases, they may also offer technical assistance and guidance on best practices for cybersecurity.

The Future of DDoS Attacks

As technology continues to evolve, so too do the methods used by attackers. The increasing prevalence of Internet of Things (IoT) devices has created new opportunities for DDoS attacks. These devices are often less secure than traditional computers, making them an attractive target for attackers looking to build larger and more powerful botnets.

Artificial intelligence and machine learning are also being used to both launch and defend against DDoS attacks. Attackers can use these technologies to automate the process of identifying and exploiting vulnerabilities, while defenders can use them to detect and respond to attacks more quickly and effectively.


DDoS attacks are a significant threat to businesses and individuals alike. Understanding how these attacks work and the methods used by attackers is the first step in defending against them. By implementing robust security measures, using DDoS protection services, and staying informed about the latest threats and techniques, you can reduce the risk and impact of a DDoS attack.

For more information on cybersecurity and how to protect yourself online, check out our other articles: